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Podstatné mená - ženský rod

26. července 2011 v 11:35 | Kei Satoru |  PRIATEĽ MÄKČEŇ, KAMARÁTKA BODKA
LECTURE 5: Nouns - declension of feminine nouns

Nouns in Slovak language are being declensed according to noun patterns. For feminine nouns we have 4 main patterns, 1 additional, and 2 special nouns, which cover mostly all the possibilities (except the exceptions of course :P)

REMEMBER THESE GENERAL RULES FOR ALL FEMININE NOUNS!
- in Singular Instrumental is always ending -OU
- in Plural Instrumental is always ending -AMI (written with I, never Y)
- be careful in the Plural Genitive, where most changes and contractions occur (!)
- note the same or similar endings in all patterns in most of the Plural forms (G., D., L., I.)
- demonstrative pronouns for feminine nouns are: TÁ (sg.) - TIE (pl.)


Pattern 1: ŽENA (woman, female)
- all feminine nouns ending with a hard or ambivalent consonant + vowel -A
- all feminine loanwords ending with -OA, -UA (aloa, Nikaragua)
- stem is created by cutting off this ending vowel -A
CaseSingularPluralSingularPlural
N.ŽENAŽENYLÁSKALÁSKY
G.
ŽENYŽIEN (!)LÁSKY
LÁSOK (!)
D.ŽENEŽENÁMLÁSKE
LÁSKAM
A.ŽENUŽENYLÁSKU
LÁSKY
V.ŽENA!ŽENY!LÁSKA!LÁSKY!
L.(O) ŽENE(O) ŽENÁCH
(O) LÁSKE
(O) LÁSKACH
I.(SO) ŽENOU(SO) ŽENAMI(S) LÁSKOU
(S) LÁSKAMI

Pattern 2: ULICA (street)
- all feminine nouns ending in soft consonant + vowel -A
- all feminine loanwords ending with -IA, -YA (konferencia, Líbya)
- stem is created by cutting off this ending vowel -A
- after ending consonant -J there is never a long suffix
CaseSingularPlural
N.ULICAULICE
G.ULICE
ULÍC (!)
D.ULICI
ULICIAM
A.ULICU
ULICE
V.ULICA!
ULICE!
L.(O) ULICI
(O) ULICIACH
I.(S) ULICOU
(S) ULICAMI

- foreign feminine words ending in -EA (idea) have a mixed declension; in Singular D. and L. according to ULICA, all the other forms according to ŽENA.

Pattern 3: DLAŇ (palm of the hand)
- some feminine nouns ending with a consonant
- stem is the whole word
- in the grammatical suffixed is always -I (never -Y)
- in Plural Genitivus is always long -í (it is an exception from rhytmical rule)
- after ending consonant -J there is never a long suffix
CaseSingularPlural
N.DLAŇDLANE
G.DLANEDLANÍ
D.DLANIDLANIAM
A.DLAŇDLANE
V.DLAŇ!DLANE!
L.(O) DLANI(O) DLANIACH
I.(S) DLAŇOU(S) DLAŇAMI

Pattern 4: KOSŤ (bone)
- some feminine nouns ending with a consonant
- stem is the whole word
- in the grammatical suffixed is always -I (never -Y)
CaseSingularPlural
N.KOSŤKOSTI
G.KOSTIKOSTÍ
D.KOSTIKOSTIAM
A.KOSŤKOSTI
V.KOSŤ!KOSTI!
L.(O) KOSTI(O) KOSTIACH
I.(S) KOSŤOU(S) KOSŤAMI

Pattern 5: GAZDINÁ (housewife)
- all feminine nouns ending with -NÁ / -INÁ
- stem is created by cutting off the vowel -Á
CaseSingularPlural
N.GAZDINÁGAZDINÉ
G.GAZDINEJGAZDÍN (!)
D.GAZDINEJGAZDINÁM
A.GAZDINÚGAZDINÉ
V.GAZDINÁ!GAZDINÉ!
L.(O) GAZDINEJ
(O) GAZDINÁCH
I.(S) GAZDINOU(S) GAZDINAMI

Special declension: MAŤ / MATER (mother); PANI (missis, lady)
- this declension is special for both of the nouns
- nouns PANI is declensed this way when it stands alone, if it is connected with another word it is not being declensed (PANI SUSEDA > PANI SUSEDU; PANI EVA > PANI EVU)
CaseSingularPluralSingularPlural
N.MAŤMATEREPANIPANIE
G.MATEREMATERÍ (!)PANEJPANÍ
D.MATERIMATERIAMPANEJPANIAM
A.MAŤMATEREPANIUPANIE
V.MAŤ!MATERE !PANI!PANIE!
L.(O) MATERI(O) MATERIACH(O) PANEJ
(O) PANIACH
I.(S) MATEROU(S) MATERAMI(S) PAŇOU(S) PANIAMI

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